Radiological Evaluation in Mediastinal Diseases


In symptomatic or asymptomatic patients, a large number of different mediastinal masses can be found using radiological imaging techniques. Understanding the localisation and composition of these lesions is critical for narrowing the differential diagnosis. Radiological segmentation of the mediastinum helps classify the diagnosis of the masses by their region. However, some diseases do not occur only in a specific compartment and can spread from one section to another. The tissue components of the mass, the degree of vascularization and their relationship with mediastinal structures evaluated by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitute the leading limits of radiological diagnosis. In recent years, special applications have been developed in MRI to accurately identify the tissue components of mediastinal masses. The likelihood of malignancy of mediastinal masses is associated with symptomatology and the patient’s age. In this article, the most common mediastinal masses are reviewed, taking into account clinical stories and symptoms, anatomical position and some details in different imaging methods that allow accurate diagnosis in many cases.

Keywords: Mediastinum, mass, multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging
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